Tuesday, August 15, 2017

Calibration of Process Instrumentation

sanitary rtd temperature transmitter
Industrial temperature transmitter requires
periodic calibration to assure reliable performance
Image courtesy of Smart Sensors
Calibration is an essential part of keeping process measurement instrumentation delivering reliable and actionable information. All instruments utilized in process control are dependent on variables which translate from input to output. Calibration ensures the instrument is properly detecting and processing the input so that the output accurately represents a process condition. Typically, calibration involves the technician simulating an environmental condition and applying it to the measurement instrument. An input with a known quantity is introduced to the instrument, at which point the technician observes how the instrument responds, comparing instrument output to the known input signal.

Even if instruments are designed to withstand harsh physical conditions and last for long periods of time, routine calibration as defined by manufacturer, industry, and operator standards is necessary to periodically validate measurement performance. Information provided by measurement instruments is used for process control and decision making, so a difference between an instrument’s output signal and the actual process condition can impact process output or facility overall performance and safety.

In all cases, the operation of a measurement instrument should be referenced, or traceable, to a universally recognized and verified measurement standard. Maintaining the reference path between a field instrument and a recognized physical standard requires careful attention to detail and uncompromising adherence to procedure.

Instrument ranging is where a certain range of simulated input conditions are applied to an instrument and verifying that the relationship between input and output stays within a specified tolerance across the entire range of input values. Calibration and ranging differ in that calibration focuses more on whether or not the instrument is sensing the input variable accurately, whereas ranging focuses more on the instrument’s input and output. The difference is important to note because re-ranging and re-calibration are distinct procedures.

In order to calibrate an instrument correctly, a reference point is necessary. In some cases, the reference point can be produced by a portable instrument, allowing in-place calibration of a transmitter or sensor. In other cases, precisely manufactured or engineered standards exist that can be used for bench calibration. Documentation of each operation, verifying that proper procedure was followed and calibration values recorded, should be maintained on file for inspection.

As measurement instruments age, they are more susceptible to declination in stability. Any time maintenance is performed, calibration should be a required step since the calibration parameters are sourced from pre-set calibration data which allows for all the instruments in a system to function as a process control unit.

Typical calibration timetables vary depending on specifics related to equipment and use. Generally, calibration is performed at predetermined time intervals, with notable changes in instrument performance also being a reliable indicator for when an instrument may need a tune-up. A typical type of recalibration regarding the use of analog and smart instruments is the zero and span adjustment, where the zero and span values define the instrument’s specific range. Accuracy at specific input value points may also be included, if deemed significant.

The management of calibration and maintenance operations for process measurement instrumentation is a significant factor in facility and process operation. It can be performed with properly trained and equipped in-house personnel, or with the engagement of subcontractors. Calibration operations can be a significant cost center, with benefits accruing from increases in efficiency gained through the use of better calibration instrumentation that reduces task time.

Thursday, August 10, 2017

Measurement of Oxygen in Processing Applications

optical oxygen sensor for process measurement and control
This optical oxygen sensor is one of many oxygen
measurement devices
Image courtesy Mettler-Toledo
The measurement of oxygen is used throughout many industrial processing operations. Knowing about oxygen measurement technology can lead to better measurement performance.

Mettler-Toledo, a recognized leader in process analytical measurement technology, has authored a comprehensive guide to oxygen measurement. Some of the covered topics include:

  • Theoretical background of oxygen measurement
  • Calibration of oxygen sensors
  • Description of oxygen measurement technologies
  • Common challenges with oxygen measurements
  • And more
A copy of the guide is included below. Share your process analytical requirements and challenges with measurement experts, combining your own knowledge and experience with their product application expertise to develop effective solutions. Ask for your own copy of the guide, too.

Friday, August 4, 2017

Direct Reading Level Indicator Gauge for Process Tanks

direct reading tank level gauge indicator
Direct reading level gauge continuously indicates
tank liquid level
Image courtesy Jogler
Anytime there is a process tank, there is a need to know how full it may be. There are numerous methods and technologies that can be applied, with varying levels of complexity and accuracy, to provide a measure and indication of tank liquid level.

A direct reading tank level gauge is essentially an extension of the tank that provides a visible indication of liquid level. The level is not inferred from a pressure reading or tank weight, nor is it represented by the movement of a float or other device. The actual process liquid can be seen by an operator or technician by looking at the clear display area of the gauge.

A direct reading level gauge connects to tank fittings at significantly high and low points along the tank side wall. The connections permit process liquid to flow into the gauge, with the level in the gauge being the same as that in the tank. A scale on the gauge provides a reference point for liquid level that can be recorded or used in other ways in the process. The simple device has no moving parts, requires no calibration, demands little to no maintenance. It can be the primary level indicating device for a manually operated fill, or act as a backup or local indicator for an automated process.

There are pressure limitations for these indicators. Higher pressure applications, or those with liquids that may foul the clear viewing area of the indicator are better handled with a magnetic level indicator. Like all instruments, proper application is the key to getting the best performance.

Share your level measurement and indication requirements and challenges with process measurement specialists, combining your own process knowledge and experience with their product application expertise to develop effective solutions.